Archives de catégorie : Researching Sudan

Publication – The 2015 Sudanese General Elections: Political readjustment and authoritarian reinforcement, By Soliman Chaouche (Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne University)

Last April, Sudanese people have been called to the polls for the 2015 general elections. It represented a significant challenge, given the fact that this ballot was the first in Sudan since the secession of South Sudan in 2011.

Despite a call for boycott by the main opposition parties, Omar El Bechir, in power since 1989, has decided to maintain the vote. This choice was all the more surprising at a moment where the government was facing many issues: a major economic crisis, more violent opposition movements in peripheral regions, infightings within the ruling party…

Soliman Chaouche’s fieldwork was carried out during the two-month campaign before the elections. His paper is based on the final electoral results and on the analysis of the Sudanese political system. It argues that these elections have led to the weakening of the main opposition parties and to the consolidation of the current regime. Indeed, far from the path to democracy, this ballot has been, paradoxically a strengthening tool for El Bechir.

Soliman Chaouche’s paper in French: http://www.lam.sciencespobordeaux.fr/sites/lam/files/note10_observatoire.pdf

This paper is the result of a collaboration between the CEDEJ Khartoum, the CFEE, the Multiannual Observatory of Political and Security issues and the Regional Council of Aquitaine.

The Multiannual Observatory of Political and Security Issues is a research program dedicated to the historical perspective of political developments. It is co-financed by the Directorate General for International Relations and Strategy (DGRIS, http : //www.defense.gouv.fr/das/la-dgris ) and by Africas in the World (LAM, UMR-CNRS 5115) at Sciences Po Bordeaux (http://www.sciencespobordeaux.fr/fr/index .html).

Les soudanais se sont récemment rendus aux urnes à l’occasion des élections générales de 2015, conformément au calendrier électoral mais dans un contexte inédit puisqu’il s’agissait des premières élections depuis l’indépendance du Soudan du Sud en 2011. Malgré l’appel de la grande majorité des parts d’opposition à repousser le scrutin, le régime d’Omar El Béchir au pouvoir depuis 1989 a décidé de maintenir le vote. Une décision d’autant plus surprenante qu’elle s’inscrit dans un contexte particulièrement difficile pour le régime en place (crise économique majeure, opposition armée dans les régions périphériques et luttes internes au sein du parti au pouvoir).

Revenant sur les deux mois de campagne ayant précédé le scrutin, les résultats électoraux, mais aussi le fonctionnement du régime politique soudanais, cette Note revient sur les mécanismes par lesquels ces élections ont conduit à l’affaiblissement des principaux partis d’opposition et au renforcement du pouvoir en place. En effet, bien loin d’avoir mis le Soudan sur la voie de la « démocratisation », ce scrutin s’est davantage révélé un formidable outil de renforcement du régime autoritaire en place.

La note de Soliman Chaouche : http://www.lam.sciencespobordeaux.fr/sites/lam/files/note10_observatoire.pdf

Cette note est le fruit d’une collaboration entre le CEDEJ Khartoum, le CFEE, l’Observatoire pluriannuel des enjeux politiques et sécuritaires dans la Corne de l’Afrique et le Conseil régional de l’Aquitaine.

L’Observatoire pluriannuel des enjeux politiques et sécuritaires dans la Corne de l’Afrique est financé par la Direction Générale des Relations Internationales et de la Stratégie (DGRIS) et par le Laboratoire Les Afriques dans le Monde (LAM, UMR CNRS 5115) de Sciences Po Bordeaux (http://www.sciencespobordeaux.fr/fr/index.html).

 

 

Article – Khartoum, A changing capital, By Alice Franck and Claude Iverné

Khartoum’s current situation is special. After experiencing a decade of rapid changes due to the entry of Sudan in the circle of oil producing countries, the Sudanese capital – just like the rest of the country, although to a lesser extent – has been facing a strong economic recession since the independence of South Sudan in 2011 and the loss of the most part of its oil income. The economic malaise (rampant inflation, devaluation…) is palpable when you engage in a conversation with Khartoum people.

But strangely enough, this did not impact the urban landscape yet, and new buildings are still rising at a rapid pace.

This article goes back on the decade 2000-2010 during which there was an economic growth, and land and property sectors were the main outlet for the petrodollars. This period was also characterized by the historical peace agreement between the North and the South that has lead to the partition of the country. This partition has also contributed to the in-depth transformation of the capital, in particular with regard to the demographic situation.

In this article, Claude Iverné, photographer specialized in Sudan, shares some of his pictures.

Those pictures are the starting point of this analysis on the transformations of Khartoum, such as the new projects on the Nile, the apparition of towers in Khartoum, the renovation of the city center, as well as the transformation of the internally displaced persons camps.

Alice Franck & Claude Iverné, « Khartoum, capitale en mutation », La Vie des idées, 29 décembre 2014. ISSN : 2105-3030. URL : http://www.laviedesidees.fr/Khartoum-capitale-en-mutation.html

Here is the link to the article (in French)

Publication – The legal statute of Nuba people in South Kordofan and the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ rights, By Philippe Gout

Philippe Gout is a Phd candidate in international law at the Institute of Higher International Studies (Paris 2 Panthéon Assas). He was granted a scholarship from the CEDEJ.

His article deals with the rigidity of the international statute on indigenous peoples and of the absence of a pragmatic approach which would enable its application in specific situations.

 The article specifically addresses the situation of Nuba populations from South Kordofan. The heterogeneity of Nuba groups, as well as the interests pursued by the different Nuba actors, show the artificiality of the claims in favor of a unified legal statute. Actors instantiate their claims for this protective status through an ongoing, unfinished process of objectiying their unified identity.
Besides, recent innovations of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ rights do not help the clarification of a unified statute for Nuba people. Last but not least, the structural dualism of Sudanese constitutional law definitely excludes the eventuality that such unified statute applies in the Sudanese legal order.

The research on Sudan highlighted at two recent international scientific conferences in Paris

The research about Sudan was highlighted at two scientific conferences that were held recently in Paris: the 6th European Conference on African Studies (ECAS 2015) and the 1st Conference of the group of scientific interest (GIS) on the Middle-East and on Muslim Worlds.

Untitled Collective mobilizations in Africa: Contestation, Resistance, Revolt”, the 6th European Conference on African Studies (ECAS 2015) was held in Paris from July 8th to 10th. Among the objectives of this international conference, ECAS 2015 aimed to promote the emergence of new concepts and issues of research on Africa in order to better identify and understand the current changes in the African continent, as well as the historical roots of those changes.

We are pleased to see that several Phd candidates/researchers associated with CEDEJ-Khartoum has participated to this conference. Anne-Laure Mahé, from the University of Montreal, has introduced her paper untitled “Thriving on chaos: violent conflict as a factor of authoritarian resiliency in Sudan”. Philippe Gout, a Phd student in International Law with University Paris 2 Panthéon Assas, has presented his paper “The halt of ICC’s war crimes investigations in Darfur: the limits of Prosecutor’s definition of the crime of genocide and the full-scale resistance to ICC’s investigations”. Dr. Raphaëlle Guibert, researcher in political sciences, has presented her research about gold mining – “Le gouvernement de l’or au Soudan: remodelage des pratiques et contrôle du secteur”. And Dr. Elena Vezzadini, an associate researcher with CEDEJ-Khartoum and with the University of Bergen, has also contributed to this conference.

Furthermore, several researchers specialized in Sudan were present at the conference: Dr. Siri Lamoureux, Dr. Greit Steel, Dr. Clémence Pinaud and Dr. Lotjes de Vries.

Another international scientific conference can be noted: from July 7th to 9th, the 1st Conference of the group of scientific interest (GIS) on the Middle-East and on Muslim Worlds was held in Paris. This international conference aimed to create an overview of the current state of the French research, with the contribution of numerous foreign guests. Its objective was to encourage the collaboration between researchers, as well as the improvement of the visibility of the scientific studies on the Middle-East and on Muslim Worlds.

In this conference as well, we are pleased to see that research on Sudan was highlighted: Dr Raphaëlle Guibert has introduced her work about the Sudanese Islamic experience – “Bourgeois islamiste vs  entrepreneur  nomade  ?  Oppositions  et  convergences  des  modèles  de  la  réussite dans  l’expérience  islamique  soudanaise” ; as for Dr Iris Seri-Hersch, she has presented her research about the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan – « Arabisation, Islamisation et (dé)colonisation dans  le  Soudan anglo-­égyptien (1946-­1964)».

Research on Sudan: The British Museum and the Anthropologists’ Fund for Urgent Anthropological Research offer a second Research Fellowship in Urgent Anthropology

The British Museum and the Anthropologists’ Fund for Urgent Anthropological Research offer a second Research Fellowship in Urgent Anthropology. The Fellowship provides (non-salaried) financial support for an eighteen month period of field research and writing, with a specific focus on Sudan.

The Research Fellowship in Urgent Anthropology is designed to facilitate ethnographic research on peoples whose culture and language are currently threatened. The programme’s primary aim is to contribute to anthropological knowledge through detailed ethnography, and also if possible help the peoples being described in their particular circumstances. The British Museum is hosting the fellowship programme for three years from 2014: this is the second fellowship.

The British Museum Urgent Anthropology Fellowship Programme has a specific focus, on threatened Nile Valley communities in northern Sudan. The 20th century riverine communities of northern Sudan and Nubia have been the subject of relatively little anthropological field research, and are facing radical transformations, brought about by a variety of infrastructural developments, including dam construction, large-scale agricultural development, the arrival of mobile technologies and changing foodways. These are village communities based on subsistence agriculture and date palm cash-cropping; Arabic is widely spoken, as is Nubian.

The British Museum currently runs three ongoing archaeological research projects, at Amara West near Abri; Kawa near modern Dongola ; Dangeil near the cities of Berber and Abidiya . The first fellowship is currently held by Dr. Karin Willemse, who is focusing on the Abri area, with the following research questions:

· How do Nubians living in the Abri area, and those in the diaspora (mainly Khartoum), construct a notion of “the” Nubian community in the sense of an imagined community in the way they talk, reminiscence about the Nubian past, present and future?

· How do ‘Nubians’ thereby refer to spatial, cultural (material, visual, virtual and moral), and historical aspects of ‘Nubian-ness’ based on one Nubian core-culture?

The second fellowship will be offered to an anthropologist proposing a fieldwork project in these areas of northern Sudan, thus availing of the necessary logistical support, assistance with research permits and access to communities. Preference will be given to projects with a different focus from that of Dr. Willemse.

The Fellowship makes it possible for a budgeted project to be carried out over about 18 months: this period to include both field research and writing-up. Fellows are required to spend part of their fellowship period in the field and part in the Museum, and where they are expected to contribute to its academic life. In the Museum, the fellows will be affiliated to both the Department of Africa, Oceania and the Americas, and the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan.

The Fellowship will provide £30,000 to be spent over 18 months, inclusive of all costs except overheads to be borne by the Museum for time spent in London, but exclusive of salary. The Fellowships, are awarded to post-doctoral applicants by open competition without restriction of nationality or residence. Applicants should send an application comprising project proposal (maximum 4 pages) including research plan and timeline, intended outputs and budget; a CV and two letters of reference. The budget should include all personal and research expenses (within Sudan and the UK), insurance, and costs of equipment necessary for the project.

The Urgent Anthropology Fund is managed through the Royal Anthropological Institute.

Please submit applications to AOA@britishmuseum.org

Closing date is 31 July 2015.

Publication – Gender, Home and Identity: Nuer repatration to South Sudan, by Katarzyna Grabska

How and where did returning Nuer refugees make their ‘homes’ in southern Sudan? How were gender relations and identity redefined as a result of war, displacement and return to post-war communities? And how were those displaced able to recreate a sense of home, community and nation?

During the civil wars in southern Sudan (1983-2005) many of the displaced Sudanese, including many Nuer, were in refugee camps in Kenya and Ethiopia. In the aftermath of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, they repatriated to southern Sudan. Faced with finding long-lost relatives and local expectations of ‘proper behaviour’, they often felt displaced again.
Gender, home and identityThis book follows the lives of a group of Nuer in the Greater Upper Nile region. The narratives of those displaced and those who stayed behind reveal the complexity of social change, in particular, the crucial yet relatively unconsidered transformation of gender and generational relations, and how this has impacted on state formation in what is now South Sudan.
Katarzyna Grabska is a research fellow with the Department of Anthropology and Sociology of Development at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID) in Geneva. She is also an associate researcher at the CEDEJ-Khartoum.

MULTIDIMENSIONAL CHANGE IN SUDAN (1989–2011) Reshaping Livelihoods, Conflicts and Identities Edited by Barbara Casciarri, Munzoul A.M. Assal and François Ireton

CasciarriMultidimensional

It is our pleasure to announce the recent publication of Multidimensional Change in Sudan (1989-2011): Reshaping Livelihoods, Conflicts and Identities, edited by Barbara Casciarri, Munzoul A.M. Assal and François Ireton and published by Berghahn. This collective book is in many ways linked with the CEDEJ Khartoum’s work.

 

 

 

Migration and exile in the Horn of Africa: State of knowledge and current debates – Khartoum, 16 – 18 November 2015

Call for Paper

CEDEJ (French Research Centre for Social Sciences) in Khartoum and CFEE (French Centre for Ethiopian Studies) in Addis Ababa invite interested participants to a scientific conference that will take place in Khartoum, 16-18 November, 2015.

Supported by the Institut français in Paris, the conference aims to create an overview of the current state of research on migrations in the Horn of Africa. It will focus on the recent fieldwork conducted in the migrants’ and exilees’ areas of origins, transit and destination.

Mobility is a major socio-political and economic dynamic in the history of this region. African and European researchers have, for a long time, been examining the different scales and dynamics of migratory flows. Empirical approaches will be emphasized during the conference in order to provide an overview of the existing social science research on migration within the Horn of Africa.

Increasing internal migration combined with a growing number of displaced people in the sub-region (especially Somalia, Ethiopia, and Sudan) have caught the media attention, as the number of deathly shipwrecks in the Mediterranean sea involving migrants from the Horn region has skyrocketed in the recent years, particularly since the beginning of 2015.

This trend calls for a more attentive analysis of the various types of mobility and of the diverse impacts of such migrations. Such approach brings to examine how the diverse ramifications of migration are restructuring political and socio-economic relations at regional as well as national levels. The link between pastoralism and internal migrations is of great significance in this respect. More broadly, migration needs to be linked with regional developmental and economic disparities, transformations in livelihoods, and urbanization in a context of political, economic as well as environmental instability.

Local levels of internal mobility (whether “voluntary” or “forced”) cannot be isolated from trans-border dynamics. The explorations of migratory flows, including those of refugees and displaced persons across borders in the region (Somalia-Kenya, Eritrea-Ethiopia, South Sudan-Uganda, Sudan-Chad, Egypt-Soudan, etc.) as well as across the Red Sea, have demonstrated that refugee and migrant trajectories constitute a series of stages and routes of goings and comings, including commuter trajectories. Seasonal migrations and forced displacements caused by violence, conflicts and drought stand side by side with regional migrations towards countries which are perceived as being safer and better equipped to offer opportunities for a new life, or at least for survival.

These cross-border local migrations are linked to broader migration processes, which are a part of international mobility within a particularly unstable and challenging context. These aforementioned elements are due to protracted and contemporary conflicts. They are also embedded in authoritarian political systems, and affected by the policies deployed by international organizations in order to alleviate the lack of state regulations where states are supposed to be too fragile.

The Horn of Africa constitutes a frontier-region from more than one vantage point since it encompasses several heterogeneous migratory flows:

 – Intra-regional migrations primarily linked with conflicts but also with economic and climatic catastrophes;

– Migrations to the oil-producing Gulf countries,

– Migrations to European countries and Israel, via Egypt or Libya.

Evidently, it is the migratory flow to European countries that is of special focus to the European Union as well as the major international organizations. While the international aid resources diminish and the immigration and asylum policies in European countries become more and more hostile towards those migrants arriving from the Horn of Africa, it seems pertinent to reevaluate the conditions that favour migrations in/from the region.

Funding policy related to humanitarian aid and development projects in the region is to be scrutinized, as well as the contribution of the diasporas (like the Somali and Sudanese diasporas in Great Britain, the Sudanese diaspora in Egypt, or the Eritrean Diaspora in Sweden and in the United States) to the economic viability of the country of origin or even to the very survival of the migrant communities scattered between African cities and refugee camps.

In this conference, we intend to distance ourselves from the studies that focus mainly on the causes of departure (the ‘why’ question), as a way to underscore instead the dynamics and conditions of mobility (the ‘how’ question).

We invite papers that elaborate the following themes, among others:

– What are the connections between the different scales of migration? To what extent are they interdependent? In this way, we avoid dualistic classifications which separate internal and international migrations, and rather favour the analysis of places of departure, transit and arrival, experiences of exile as well as circular and return migration.

– What are the recent developments of these migrations? How do they affect, at different scales, the political and economic situation of the countries of origin, transit and destination?

– What are the diverse networks and agents that encourage, support and benefit from the processes of migration? What role do the new technologies and communication networks play in influencing and orienting the pathways of migrants?

– What are the institutional, economic, political and social modalities that frame the experiences of migrants in the places of origin, transit and destination? To what extent are they heterogeneous and what are the interfaces between them?

– In what ways does the experience of migration affect and transform identities, statuses and social relations of individual migrants and their groups?

– To what extent can interdisciplinary approaches contribute to a deeper understanding of migratory processes?

We encourage a close consideration of generational and gender sensitive lines of analysis in addressing these themes.

Please send abstracts of a maximum of 400 words and a short biographical note no later than 23 May, 2015, to alicefranck@yahoo.fr and direction@cfee.cnrs.fr. Please indicate if your institution can support your travel expenses and become a partner of the event, or if, on the contrary, you require a financial support from the organisers of the conference. Due to limited funding, only a small number of travels will be covered.

 Scientific Committee:

– Katarzyna Grabska (IHEID, CEDEJ Khartoum)

– Hélène Thiollet (CNRS, Science Po)

– Alice Franck (CEDEJ Khartoum)

– David Ambrosetti (CFEE)

Migration and exile in the Horn of Africa: State of knowledge and current debates – Khartoum, 16 – 18 November 2015

DSC_0623

Call for Paper

CEDEJ (French Research Centre for Social Sciences) in Khartoum and CFEE (French Centre for Ethiopian Studies) in Addis Ababa invite interested participants to a scientific conference that will take place in Khartoum, 16-18 November, 2015.

Supported by the Institut français in Paris, the conference aims to create an overview of the current state of research on migrations in the Horn of Africa. It will focus on the recent fieldwork conducted in the migrants’ and exilees’ areas of origins, transit and destination. 

Mobility is a major socio-political and economic dynamic in the history of this region. African and European researchers have, for a long time, been examining the different scales and dynamics of migratory flows. Empirical approaches will be emphasized during the conference in order to provide an overview of the existing social science research on migration within the Horn of Africa.

Increasing internal migration combined with a growing number of displaced people in the sub-region (especially Somalia, Ethiopia, and Sudan) have caught the media attention, as the number of deathly shipwrecks in the Mediterranean sea involving migrants from the Horn region has skyrocketed in the recent years, particularly since the beginning of 2015.

This trend calls for a more attentive analysis of the various types of mobility and of the diverse impacts of such migrations. Such approach brings to examine how the diverse ramifications of migration are restructuring political and socio-economic relations at regional as well as national levels. The link between pastoralism and internal migrations is of great significance in this respect. More broadly, migration needs to be linked with regional developmental and economic disparities, transformations in livelihoods, and urbanization in a context of political, economic as well as environmental instability.

Local levels of internal mobility (whether “voluntary” or “forced”) cannot be isolated from trans-border dynamics. The explorations of migratory flows, including those of refugees and displaced persons across borders in the region (Somalia-Kenya, Eritrea-Ethiopia, South Sudan-Uganda, Sudan-Chad, Egypt-Soudan, etc.) as well as across the Red Sea, have demonstrated that refugee and migrant trajectories constitute a series of stages and routes of goings and comings, including commuter trajectories. Seasonal migrations and forced displacements caused by violence, conflicts and drought stand side by side with regional migrations towards countries which are perceived as being safer and better equipped to offer opportunities for a new life, or at least for survival.

These cross-border local migrations are linked to broader migration processes, which are a part of international mobility within a particularly unstable and challenging context. These aforementioned elements are due to protracted and contemporary conflicts. They are also embedded in authoritarian political systems, and affected by the policies deployed by international organizations in order to alleviate the lack of state regulations where states are supposed to be too fragile.

The Horn of Africa constitutes a frontier-region from more than one vantage point since it encompasses several heterogeneous migratory flows:

 – Intra-regional migrations primarily linked with conflicts but also with economic and climatic catastrophes;

– Migrations to the oil-producing Gulf countries,

– Migrations to European countries and Israel, via Egypt or Libya.

Evidently, it is the migratory flow to European countries that is of special focus to the European Union as well as the major international organizations. While the international aid resources diminish and the immigration and asylum policies in European countries become more and more hostile towards those migrants arriving from the Horn of Africa, it seems pertinent to reevaluate the conditions that favour migrations in/from the region.

Funding policy related to humanitarian aid and development projects in the region is to be scrutinized, as well as the contribution of the diasporas (like the Somali and Sudanese diasporas in Great Britain, the Sudanese diaspora in Egypt, or the Eritrean Diaspora in Sweden and in the United States) to the economic viability of the country of origin or even to the very survival of the migrant communities scattered between African cities and refugee camps.

In this conference, we intend to distance ourselves from the studies that focus mainly on the causes of departure (the ‘why’ question), as a way to underscore instead the dynamics and conditions of mobility (the ‘how’ question).

We invite papers that elaborate the following themes, among others:

– What are the connections between the different scales of migration? To what extent are they interdependent? In this way, we avoid dualistic classifications which separate internal and international migrations, and rather favour the analysis of places of departure, transit and arrival, experiences of exile as well as circular and return migration.

– What are the recent developments of these migrations? How do they affect, at different scales, the political and economic situation of the countries of origin, transit and destination?

– What are the diverse networks and agents that encourage, support and benefit from the processes of migration? What role do the new technologies and communication networks play in influencing and orienting the pathways of migrants?

– What are the institutional, economic, political and social modalities that frame the experiences of migrants in the places of origin, transit and destination? To what extent are they heterogeneous and what are the interfaces between them?

– In what ways does the experience of migration affect and transform identities, statuses and social relations of individual migrants and their groups?

– To what extent can interdisciplinary approaches contribute to a deeper understanding of migratory processes?

We encourage a close consideration of generational and gender sensitive lines of analysis in addressing these themes.

Please send abstracts of a maximum of 400 words and a short biographical note no later than 23 May, 2015, to alicefranck@yahoo.fr and direction@cfee.cnrs.fr. Please indicate if your institution can support your travel expenses and become a partner of the event, or if, on the contrary, you require a financial support from the organisers of the conference. Due to limited funding, only a small number of travels will be covered.

 Scientific Committee:

– Katarzyna Grabska (IHEID, CEDEJ Khartoum)

– Hélène Thiollet (CNRS, Science Po)

– Alice Franck (CEDEJ Khartoum)

– David Ambrosetti (CFEE)

Call for paper Horn Migration_English Appel à com Migrations et exils dans la Corne de l’Afrique